J Physiol 2013 Nov 30;591(22):5491-508. Epub 2013 Sep 30.
I. A. Rybak: Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA.
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J Neurosci 2014 Mar;34(11):3841-53
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden, Faculty of Medicine and College of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 305-8577 Tsukuba, Japan, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 351-0198 Wako, Japan, and National Institute of Genetics, SOKENDAI, 411-8540 Mishima, Japan.
EphA4 signaling is essential for the spatiotemporal organization of neuronal circuit formation. In mice, deletion of this signaling pathway causes aberrant midline crossing of axons from both brain and spinal neurons and the complete knock-outs (KOs) exhibit a pronounced change in motor behavior, where alternating gaits are replaced by a rabbit-like hopping gait. The neuronal mechanism that is responsible for the gait switch in these KO mice is not known. Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2011 Oct 7;34(7):1102-12. Epub 2011 Sep 7.
Mammalian Locomotor Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius väg 8, Stockholm, Sweden.
Neuronal networks in the spinal cord termed central pattern generators (CPGs) are responsible for the generation of rhythmic movements, such as walking. The axon guidance molecule EphA4 has been suggested to play a role in the configuration of spinal CPG networks in mammals. In EphA4 knockout (EphA4-KO) mice, the normal alternating walking pattern is replaced by a rabbit-like hopping gait, which can be reproduced when locomotor-like activity is induced in the isolated spinal cord. Read More
J Physiol 2015 Jun;593(11):2403-26
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Key Points: Coordination of neuronal activity between left and right sides of the mammalian spinal cord is provided by several sets of commissural interneurons (CINs) whose axons cross the midline. Genetically identified inhibitory V0D and excitatory V0V CINs and ipsilaterally projecting excitatory V2a interneurons were shown to secure left-right alternation at different locomotor speeds. We have developed computational models of neuronal circuits in the spinal cord that include left and right rhythm-generating centres interacting bilaterally via three parallel pathways mediated by V0D , V2a-V0V and V3 neuron populations. Read More
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Mar;1279:32-42
Unit of Developmental Genetics, Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
During neuronal circuit formation, axons are guided to their targets by the help of axon guidance molecules, which are required for establishing functional circuits. A promising system to dissect the development and functionalities of neuronal circuitry is the spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion, which converts a tonic supraspinal drive to rhythmic and coordinated movements. Here we describe concepts arising from genetic studies of the locomotor network with a focus on the position and roles of commissural interneurons. Read More