J Psychiatr Res 2013 Nov 23;47(11):1815-23. Epub 2013 Aug 23.
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
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Neurotox Res 2017 Jul 8;32(1):17-26. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
Several lines of evidence suggest that up-regulation of immune response and alterations of kynurenine pathway function are involved in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Correlations among clinical status (using PANNS, SANS and SAPS scales) and blood levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and levels of selected immunoactive molecules, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), interferon-α (IFN-α) and IL-4 were analyzed in 51 chronic schizophrenia patients during acute relapse, after four weeks of therapy and at remission. KYNA levels were significantly lower in comparison with controls (N=45) throughout the study, whereas 3-HK did not differ from controls at admission and during therapy, but increased at remission. Read More
Brain Behav Immun 2012 Aug 6;26(6):979-87. Epub 2012 Jun 6.
Neuroimmunology Research Group, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine & Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.
The kynurenine pathway (KP) and its rate-limiting tryptophan degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. IDO expression is driven by inflammatory cytokines, and has been suggested as the link between inflammation and a serotonergic deficit in depression. Studies also indicate that inflammatory cytokines upregulate the serotonin transporter (SERT), representing another mechanism by which inflammation could influence serotonin availability. Read More
J Psychiatry Neurosci 2012 Jan;37(1):53-7
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Background: Patients with schizophrenia show increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA). This compound is an end-metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, and its formation indirectly depends on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine.
Methods: We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Read More
PLoS One 2017 27;12(2):e0172699. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disease which can take most different and unpredictable courses. It is accompanied by unspecific brainstructural changes and cognitive decline. The neurobiological underpinnings of these processes are still unclear. Read More