PLoS One 2013 9;8(8):e73141. Epub 2013 Aug 9.
Unit of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Introduction: In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), immune cells are affected by uremic retention toxins. Given this effect, we analyzed lymphocyte proliferative response and immune modulators production following in vitro stimulation.
Methods: Whole blood was drawn from healthy controls, patients with eGFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (Pre-dialysis, CKD stages 4 and 5) and hemodialysis patients (stage 5D). Peripheral cells were incubated for six days with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A or influenza A vaccine. Peripheral lymphocyte proliferation was then analyzed by the "Flow-cytometric Assay of Specific Cell-mediated Immune response in Activated whole blood" (FASCIA) method, and cytokine profile in the cell supernatants was analyzed by the Milliplex multi-array method.
Results: The absolute number of lymphoblasts in response to mitogenic stimulation and the number of cells in each CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulation were similar comparing the three groups, except for a single decline in number of lymphoblasts after stimulation with Staphylococcus enterotoxin A, comparing dialysis patients with healthy controls. Levels of interleukin (IL)-2 (p=0.026), -10 (p=0.019) and -15 (p=0.027) in the Staphylococcus enterotoxin A-stimulated supernatant were lower in hemodialysis patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of IL-15 (p=0.017) from pre-dialysis patients and levels of IL-5 (p=0.019) from hemodialysis patients in influenza A vaccine-stimulated supernatants were also lower compared to controls. In pokeweed mitogen-stimulated supernatant, IL-2 levels (p=0.013) were lower in hemodialysis patients compared to pre-dialysis patients. TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, IP-10, IFN-α2, IL-1α and eotaxin levels were all significantly higher in plasma obtained from CKD patients.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that T-cells from CKD patients have similar proliferative response to stimulation compared with healthy individuals. Moreover, however the immune cells show inability to produce selected cytokines, most likely due to the uremic milieu or dialysis procedure.