Mechanisms of carbon nanotube-induced toxicity: focus on pulmonary inflammation.

Authors:
Kunal Bhattacharya
Kunal Bhattacharya
Dublin Institute of Technology
Ireland
Dr Fernando Torres Andón, PhD
Dr Fernando Torres Andón, PhD
University of Santiago de Compostela
AECC Researcher in Nanomedicine for Cancer Immunotherapy
Nanomedicine - Cancer Immunotherapy - Nanotoxicology - Cell Death
Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña | Spain
Bengt Fadeel
Bengt Fadeel
Karolinska Institutet
Sweden

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2013 Dec 7;65(15):2087-97. Epub 2013 Jun 7.

Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Carbon nanotubes have gained tremendous interest in a wide range of applications due to their unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties. Needless to say, close attention to the potential toxicity of carbon nanotubes is of paramount importance. Numerous studies have linked exposure of carbon nanotubes to the induction of inflammation, a complex protective response to harmful stimuli including pathogens, damaged or dying cells, and other irritants. However, inflammation is a double-edged sword as chronic inflammation can lead to destruction of tissues thus compromising the homeostasis of the organism. Here, we provide an overview of the process of inflammation, the key cells and the soluble mediators involved, and discuss research on carbon nanotubes and inflammation, including recent studies on the activation of the so-called inflammasome complex in macrophages resulting in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, recent work has shown that inflammatory cells i.e. neutrophils and eosinophils are capable of enzymatic degradation of carbon nanotubes, with mitigation of the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic effects of nanotubes thus underscoring that inflammation is both good and bad.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2013.05.012DOI Listing

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December 2013
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