GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.

Authors:
Dr Zoltán Kutalik, PhD
Dr Zoltán Kutalik, PhD
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, CHUV
Assistant Professor
Biostatistics
Lausanne, Vaud | Switzerland
Dr. Najaf Amin, PhD
Dr. Najaf Amin, PhD
Erasmus University Medical Center
Rotterdam | Netherlands
Cornelius A Rietveld Sarah E Medland Jaime Derringer Jian Yang Tõnu Esko Nicolas W Martin Harm-Jan Westra Konstantin Shakhbazov Abdel Abdellaoui Arpana Agrawal Eva Albrecht Behrooz Z Alizadeh John Barnard Sebastian E Baumeister Kelly S Benke Lawrence F Bielak Jeffrey A Boatman Patricia A Boyle Gail Davies Christiaan de Leeuw Niina Eklund Daniel S Evans Rudolf Ferhmann Krista Fischer Christian Gieger Håkon K Gjessing Sara Hägg Jennifer R Harris Caroline Hayward Christina Holzapfel Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas Erik Ingelsson Bo Jacobsson Peter K Joshi Astanand Jugessur Marika Kaakinen Stavroula Kanoni Juha Karjalainen Ivana Kolcic Kati Kristiansson Jari Lahti Sang H Lee Peng Lin Penelope A Lind Yongmei Liu Kurt Lohman Marisa Loitfelder George McMahon Pedro Marques Vidal Osorio Meirelles Lili Milani Ronny Myhre Marja-Liisa Nuotio Christopher J Oldmeadow Katja E Petrovic Wouter J Peyrot Ozren Polasek Lydia Quaye Eva Reinmaa John P Rice Thais S Rizzi Helena Schmidt Reinhold Schmidt Albert V Smith Jennifer A Smith Toshiko Tanaka Antonio Terracciano Matthijs J H M van der Loos Veronique Vitart Henry Völzke Jürgen Wellmann Lei Yu Wei Zhao Jüri Allik John R Attia Stefania Bandinelli François Bastardot Jonathan Beauchamp David A Bennett Klaus Berger Laura J Bierut Dorret I Boomsma Ute Bültmann Harry Campbell Christopher F Chabris Lynn Cherkas Mina K Chung Francesco Cucca Mariza de Andrade Philip L De Jager Jan-Emmanuel De Neve Ian J Deary George V Dedoussis Panos Deloukas Maria Dimitriou Guðny Eiríksdóttir Martin F Elderson Johan G Eriksson David M Evans Jessica D Faul Luigi Ferrucci Melissa E Garcia Henrik Grönberg Vilmundur Guðnason Per Hall Juliette M Harris Tamara B Harris Nicholas D Hastie Andrew C Heath Dena G Hernandez Wolfgang Hoffmann Adriaan Hofman Rolf Holle Elizabeth G Holliday Jouke-Jan Hottenga William G Iacono Thomas Illig Marjo-Riitta Järvelin Mika Kähönen Jaakko Kaprio Robert M Kirkpatrick Matthew Kowgier Antti Latvala Lenore J Launer Debbie A Lawlor Terho Lehtimäki Jingmei Li Paul Lichtenstein Peter Lichtner David C Liewald Pamela A Madden Patrik K E Magnusson Tomi E Mäkinen Marco Masala Matt McGue Andres Metspalu Andreas Mielck Michael B Miller Grant W Montgomery Sutapa Mukherjee Dale R Nyholt Ben A Oostra Lyle J Palmer Aarno Palotie Brenda W J H Penninx Markus Perola Patricia A Peyser Martin Preisig Katri Räikkönen Olli T Raitakari Anu Realo Susan M Ring Samuli Ripatti Fernando Rivadeneira Igor Rudan Aldo Rustichini Veikko Salomaa Antti-Pekka Sarin David Schlessinger Rodney J Scott Harold Snieder Beate St Pourcain John M Starr Jae Hoon Sul Ida Surakka Rauli Svento Alexander Teumer Henning Tiemeier Frank J A van Rooij David R Van Wagoner Erkki Vartiainen Jorma Viikari Peter Vollenweider Judith M Vonk Gérard Waeber David R Weir H-Erich Wichmann Elisabeth Widen Gonneke Willemsen James F Wilson Alan F Wright Dalton Conley George Davey-Smith Lude Franke Patrick J F Groenen Albert Hofman Magnus Johannesson Sharon L R Kardia Robert F Krueger David Laibson Nicholas G Martin Michelle N Meyer Danielle Posthuma A Roy Thurik Nicholas J Timpson André G Uitterlinden Cornelia M van Duijn Peter M Visscher Daniel J Benjamin David Cesarini Philipp D Koellinger

Science 2013 Jun 30;340(6139):1467-71. Epub 2013 May 30.

Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1235488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751588PMC
June 2013
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