Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2013 May 16;39(2):347-64. Epub 2013 Mar 16.
Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
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Curr Rheumatol Rep 2012 Feb;14(1):39-46
BIDMC, Division of Rheumatology and Lupus Center, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Scleroderma is a rare systemic autoimmune disease with multiple organ manifestations, including skin fibrosis. The groups of disorders classified as scleroderma mimics share the common thread of skin thickening but are otherwise quite incongruous in terms of underlying disease process and other organ involvement. This article reviews the clinical presentation, etiology, and treatment options available for scleroderma mimics, including morphea, scleredema, diabetic cheiroarthropathy, scleromyxedema, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Read More
Am J Dermatopathol 2014 Jun;36(6):449-64
*Pathology Specialist, Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain; and Departments of †Resident (M.G-T.), Assistant Dermatologist (A.L.R-V.) Department of Dermatology, ‡Associate Professor, Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, INER/CIENI, Hospital Angeles Lomas, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, México.
In this report, we review 5 sclerodermiform cutaneous conditions: eosinophilic fasciitis, systemic nephrogenic fibrosis, scleredema, scleromyxedema, and toxic oil syndrome. We emphasize the morphological differences between the conditions and some morphological clues that are important to differential diagnosis. Read More
Curr Opin Rheumatol 2013 Nov;25(6):692-9
aDepartment of Rheumatology bDepartment of Dermatology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Purpose Of Review: The new American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria will enable earlier diagnosis and, therefore, the use of newer treatment modalities for systemic sclerosis (SSc). It is therefore critical to exclude non-SSc causes for diffuse skin thickening as early as possible.
Recent Findings: The recently described gadolinium-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis may mimic SSc as may other conditions which require a different treatment strategy. Read More
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2017 Dec;53(3):306-336
Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Scleroderma refers to an autoimmune connective tissue fibrosing disease, including three different subsets: localized scleroderma, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with divergent patterns of organ involvement, autoantibody profiles, management, and prognostic implications. Although systemic sclerosis is considered the disease prototype that causes cutaneous sclerosis, there are many other conditions that can mimic and be confused with SSc. They can be classified into immune-mediated/inflammatory, immune-mediated/inflammatory with abnormal deposit (mucinoses), genetic, drug-induced and toxic, metabolic, panniculitis/vascular, and (para)neoplastic disorders according to clinico-pathological and pathogenetic correlations. Read More