Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

Authors:
Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh, PhD
Prof. Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh, PhD
Independent Researcher
Medical Microbiology
Cairo | Egypt
Khaled Tawil
Khaled Tawil
University of Tripoli
Abdulaziz Zorgani
Abdulaziz Zorgani
University of Tripoli

Libyan J Med 2013 Mar 27;8:1-8. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya.

Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3610430PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v8i0.20567DOI Listing
March 2013
66 Reads
6 Citations

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

resistance libya
12
resistance libya'
12
antimicrobial resistance
12
resistance
8
health authorities
8
libya
6
problem
6
antimicrobial
5
libya 2011
4
2011 reported
4
reported rates
4
standard methods
4
vancomycin-intermediate-resistant aureus
4
visa standard
4
rates primary
4
aureus visa
4
methods libya
4
acquired retreatment
4
eastern region
4
mdr-tb eastern
4

References

(Supplied by CrossRef)
Article in J Infect Public Health
Scicluna EA et al.
J Infect Public Health 2009
Article in Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
el Nageh MM et al.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1988
Article in Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung
El-Ghodban A et al.
Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2002
Article in Am J Trop Med Hyg
Rahouma A et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011
Article in Saudi Med J
Ghenghesh KS et al.
Saudi Med J 1997
Article in Saudi Med J
Ali M et al.
Saudi Med J 2005
Article in Emerg Infect Dis
Mølbak K et al.
Emerg Infect Dis 2002
Article in J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol
Karaoui RM et al.
J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1981
Article in Infect Dis Clin North Am
Gupta K et al.
Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003
Article in Garyounis Med J
Ghenghesh KS et al.
Garyounis Med J 2003

Similar Publications