Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Aug 16;1832(8):1241-8. Epub 2013 Mar 16.
Unitat de Farmacologia, Department de Farmacologia i Química Terapèutica, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Institut de Biomedicina de la UB, IBUB, Spain.
The role of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)β/δ in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease has only recently been explored through the use of PPARβ/δ agonists. Here we evaluated the effects of PPARβ/δ deficiency on the amyloidogenic pathway and tau hyperphosphorylation. PPARβ/δ-null mice showed cognitive impairment in the object recognition task, accompanied by enhanced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in the cortex and increased expression of IL-6. In addition, two NF-κB-target genes involved in β-amyloid (Aβ) synthesis and deposition, the β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (Bace1) and the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (Rage), respectively, increased in PPARβ/δ-null mice compared to wild type animals. The protein levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased in the cortex of PPARβ/δ-null mice, which would suggest the presence of astrogliosis. Finally, tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser199 and enhanced levels of PHF-tau were associated with increased levels of the tau kinases CDK5 and phospho-ERK1/2 in the cortex of PPARβ/δ(-/-) mice. Collectively, our findings indicate that PPARβ/δ deficiency results in cognitive impairment associated with enhanced inflammation, astrogliosis and tau hyperphosphorylation in the cortex.