Brain Nerve 2013 Mar;65(3):275-81
Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center, Japan.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Neurological complications occur frequently in patients with AIDS. About 20 to 40% of all these patients develop neurological symptoms, and in about 10% of AIDS patients, the onset of the disease is characterized by neurological symptoms. These may be related to primary HIV infection or to any of a large number of opportunistic viral and non-viral infections. HIV itself induces acute HIV aseptic meningitis, HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), HIV distal sensory polyneuropathy, and HIV vacuolar myelopathy. The opportunistic neurological infections are cytomegalovirus encephalitis and polyradiculomyelitis, toxoplasmosis encephalitis, cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Other neurological complications are primary central nervous system lymphoma, cerebral vascular disease (CVD), and nucleoside neuropathy (NN). Among these complications, HAND, CVD, and NN are expected to have an increased incidence in the future, they may be more important complications in HIV infection.
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