Hum Pathol 2013 Jul 14;44(7):1400-5. Epub 2013 Feb 14.
Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger is a zinc finger transcription factor that functions as a transcriptional repressor. Its expression has been shown to be down-regulated in hematopoietic, melanocytic, and mesothelial malignancies. Histone H1.5 is a variant of histone H1, a family of linker proteins that organizes chromosomes into higher order structures. Its function is of key importance in gene expression and has been linked to more aggressive forms of prostatic carcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical detectability of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger and histone H1.5 in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, comprising 11 carcinoid tumorlets, 24 typical carcinoids, 12 atypical carcinoids, 20 small cell carcinomas, 11 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 2 combined small cell carcinomas-large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger immunohistochemistry revealed moderate or strong nuclear staining in all carcinoid tumorlets, 23 of 24 typical carcinoids, and 7 of 12 atypical carcinoids in contrast to 9 of 11 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, all small cell carcinoma, and both combined small cell carcinoma-large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which showed no nuclear immunoreactivity. Histone H1.5 immunohistochemistry revealed only focal or no immunoreactivity in all carcinoid tumorlets and 19 of 24 typical carcinoids, whereas 7 of 12 atypical carcinoids, 19 of 20 small cell carcinomas, 10 of 11 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and both combined small cell carcinomas-large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas displayed positive (≥ 10%) nuclear immunoreactivity-ranging from a minority of weak staining to a majority of strong staining cases. Our data suggest that the relative expression ratios of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger and histone H1.5 may correlate with grade of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Immunohistochemical stains for these markers, especially on small biopsies with crush artifact, may prove to be diagnostically useful.