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    Dermoscopy for the pediatric dermatologist part I: dermoscopy of pediatric infectious and inflammatory skin lesions and hair disorders.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Mar-Apr;30(2):163-71. Epub 2013 Feb 14.
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Hauppauge, New York 11788, USA.
    The dermoscope allows physicians to examine the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. This review summarizes important dermoscopic structures seen in infectious and inflammatory skin conditions and hair disorders in children. Scabies, pediculosis, phthiriasis, molluscum contagiosum, tinea nigra, and verrucae are well characterized dermoscopically by delta-shaped structures, ovoid-shaped nits, the crab louse, red corona, brown strands or spicules, and multiple densely packed papilla with a central black dot surrounded by a whitish halo, respectively. These dermoscopic structures will be discussed, focusing on the dermoscopic morphologies and dermoscopic sensitivity for diagnosis and its utility in monitoring treatment progress. Dermoscopy has also been shown to significantly improve the clinician's diagnostic and monitoring accuracy of inflammatory skin lesions such as psoriasis, which is characterized dermoscopically by uniformly distributed dotted blood vessels, and lichen planus, which is characterized by whitish lines on a purple to reddish background. Dermoscopy of the hair and scalp (trichoscopy) facilitates the differential diagnosis of hair diseases in children, including alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. It can also assist in the diagnosis of multiple genetic hair shaft disorders, such as monilethrix, trichorrhexis invaginata, trichorrhexis nodosa, pili torti, and pili annulati.

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    Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.
    Dermatol Clin 2013 Oct;31(4):695-708, x
    Department of Dermatology, CSK MSW, Woloska 137, Warsaw 02-507, Poland; Department of Neuropeptides, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5, Warsaw 02-106, Poland; Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Koszykowa 82A, Warsaw 02-008, Poland.
    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. Read More
    Trichoscopy update 2011.
    J Dermatol Case Rep 2011 Dec;5(4):82-8
    Department of Dermatology, CSK MSWiA, Warsaw, Poland.
    Trichoscopy performed with a handheld dermoscope or a videodermoscope became an indispensable tool in differential diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases. Current research is focusing on trichoscopy of: 1) non-cicatricial alopecia, 2) cicatricial alopecia, 3) hair shaft disorders, and 4) inflammatory scalp diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge in these four fields of research. Read More
    Role of trichoscopy in children's scalp and hair disorders.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Nov-Dec;30(6):674-82. Epub 2013 Aug 13.
    Serviço de Dermatologia, Hospital de Santo António dos Capuchos, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central Lisbon, Portugal.
    Hair and scalp disorders in children may originate from the hair itself, scalp skin, or infectious causes and be congenital or acquired. The most common sign is alopecia, frequently brought on by tinea capitis, patchy alopecia areata, or trichotillomania. Sometimes less frequent and clinically more elusive conditions such as initial androgenetic alopecia, congenital triangular alopecia, or alopecia areata incognita may be responsible for hair loss. Read More
    Scalp dermoscopy or trichoscopy.
    Curr Probl Dermatol 2015 20;47:21-32. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
    Scalp dermoscopy or `trichoscopy' represents a valuable, noninvasive technique for the evaluation of patients with hair loss that allows for magnified visualization of the hair and scalp skin. It may be performed with a manual dermoscope (×10 magnification) or a videodermoscope (up to ×1,000 magnification). In particular, trichoscopy enhances the diagnosis of androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, trichotillomania, congenital triangular alopecia, scarring alopecia, tinea capitis and hair shaft disorders. Read More