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    Effects of meldonium on sexual performance, sperm motility, testes morphology and blood biochemical markers in boars.
    Anim Reprod Sci 2013 Jan 22;136(4):303-9. Epub 2012 Nov 22.
    Clinical Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvia University of Agriculture, 8 K. Helmana Street, Jelgava, LV 3004, Latvia.
    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of long term (90-day) administration of meldonium [3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate] (mildronate, quaterin, MET-88) on sexual performance, sperm motility, testes morphology and biochemical blood markers in boars. Boars were treated with 2.0g of meldonium daily for 90 days. Administration of meldonium improved sexual performance and sperm motility. Thus, the reaction time (time from exposure to the dummy to the start of ejaculation) was reduced and the progressive motility of spermatozoa was significantly increased in the meldonium-treated boars compared to that of the boars of control group. In addition, the spermatogenic epithelium was thicker and proliferation of interstitial endocrine cells (Leydig cells) was observed in meldonium-treated boars. The concentration of blood serum testosterone was higher in the meldonium-treatment group than in the control group. Meldonium did not affect the concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, glucose and aspartate aminotransferase/AST, alanine aminotransferase/ALT activity in blood plasma. In conclusion, 90-day administration of meldonium improved sexual performance and sperm motility of boars and it also increased concentration of testosterone in blood serum. Further studies are necessary to substantiate the potential use of meldonium as a sperm motility and/or sperm quality-enhancing agent in livestock.

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