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Optimization and phase matching of fiber-laser-driven high-order harmonic generation at high repetition rate.
Opt Lett 2012 Nov;37(22):4618-20
University of Bordeaux, Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), Centre national de recherche scientifique (CNRS), Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Unité mixte de recherche (UMR) 5107, Talence F-33400, France.
High-repetition-rate sources are very attractive for high-order harmonic generation (HHG). However, due to their pulse characteristics (low energy, long duration), those systems require a tight focusing geometry to achieve the necessary intensity to generate harmonics. In this Letter, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the optimization of HHG in this geometry, to maximize the extreme UV (XUV) photon flux and improve the conversion efficiency. We analyze the influence of atomic gas media (Ar, Kr, or Xe), gas pressure, and interaction geometries (a gas jet and a finite and a semi-infinite gas cell). Numerical simulations allow us to define optimal conditions for HHG in this tight focusing regime and to observe the signature of on-axis phase matching. These conditions are implemented experimentally using a high-repetition-rate Yb-doped fiber laser system. We achieve optimization of emission with a recorded XUV photon flux of 4.5×10(12) photons/s generated in Xe at 100 kHz repetition rate.