Transmission of Ebola virus from pigs to non-human primates.

Authors:
Hana M Weingartl
Hana M Weingartl
University of Manitoba
Canada
Carissa Embury-Hyatt
Carissa Embury-Hyatt
University of Saskatchewan
Canada
Charles Nfon
Charles Nfon
University of Liverpool
United Kingdom
Anders Leung
Anders Leung
National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories Institute
United States
Greg Smith
Greg Smith
University of Auckland
Gary Kobinger
Gary Kobinger
National Microbiology Laboratory
Winnipeg | Canada

Sci Rep 2012 15;2:811. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 1015 Arlington St. Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3M4, Canada.

Ebola viruses (EBOV) cause often fatal hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered natural reservoir, involvement of other species in EBOV transmission is unclear. In 2009, Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV detected in swine with indicated transmission to humans. In-contact transmission of Zaire-EBOV (ZEBOV) between pigs was demonstrated experimentally. Here we show ZEBOV transmission from pigs to cynomolgus macaques without direct contact. Interestingly, transmission between macaques in similar housing conditions was never observed. Piglets inoculated oro-nasally with ZEBOV were transferred to the room housing macaques in an open inaccessible cage system. All macaques became infected. Infectious virus was detected in oro-nasal swabs of piglets, and in blood, swabs, and tissues of macaques. This is the first report of experimental interspecies virus transmission, with the macaques also used as a human surrogate. Our finding may influence prevention and control measures during EBOV outbreaks.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep00811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3498927PMC
April 2013
10 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

transmission macaques
8
transmission
7
macaques
6
housing conditions
4
conditions observed
4
macaques housing
4
interestingly transmission
4
observed piglets
4
piglets inoculated
4
room housing
4
housing macaques
4
transferred room
4
zebov transferred
4
inoculated oro-nasally
4
oro-nasally zebov
4
contact interestingly
4
macaques direct
4
zaire-ebov zebov
4
zebov pigs
4
transmission zaire-ebov
4

Similar Publications

Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals.

Dev Biol (Basel) 2013 14;135:211-8. Epub 2013 May 14.

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease (NCFAD), Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg, Canada.

Ebola viruses (EBOV; genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae) cause often fatal, hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. Read More

View Article
December 2013

Experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with Ebola-Reston filoviruses from the 1989-1990 U.S. epizootic.

Arch Virol Suppl 1996 ;11:115-34

United States Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5011, USA.

This study describes the pathogenesis of the Ebola-Reston (EBO-R) subtype of Ebola virus for experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. The disease course of EBO-R in macaques was very similar to human disease and to experimental diseases in macaques following EBO-Zaire and EBO-Sudan infections. Cynomolgus monkeys infected with EBO-R in this experiment developed anorexia, occasional nasal discharge, and splenomegaly, petechial facial hemorrhages and severe subcutaneous hemorrhages in venipuncture sites, similar to human Ebola fever. Read More

View Article
September 1996

Replication, pathogenicity, shedding, and transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in pigs.

J Infect Dis 2011 Jul 12;204(2):200-8. Epub 2011 May 12.

Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada.

Unlabelled: (See the editorial commentary by Bausch, on pages 179-81.)

Background: Reston ebolavirus was recently detected in pigs in the Philippines. Specific antibodies were found in pig farmers, indicating exposure to the virus. Read More

View Article
July 2011

Ebola virus circulation in Africa: a balance between clinical expression and epidemiological silence.

Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2005 Sep;98(3):210-7

Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Unité de recherche 178.

Nearly thirty years after the first epidemics, Ebola virus (EBOV) remains hardly described, its transmission unclear and its reservoir elusive. Soon after the Ebola fever outbreak and virus discovery in 1976 and in order to investigate the distribution of EBOV in Central Africa, several countries including a range of ecological zones were investigated in the early 1980s, using extensive survey: Central African Republic (CAR), Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Since 1992, ELISA antibody test along with a RT-PCR have been used to detect specific virus antibodies and characterize viral RNA. Read More

View Article
September 2005