Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution.

Authors:
Martien A M Groenen Alan L Archibald Hirohide Uenishi Christopher K Tuggle Yasuhiro Takeuchi Max F Rothschild Claire Rogel-Gaillard Chankyu Park Denis Milan Hendrik-Jan Megens Shengting Li Denis M Larkin Heebal Kim Laurent A F Frantz Mario Caccamo Hyeonju Ahn Bronwen L Aken Anna Anselmo Christian Anthon Loretta Auvil Bouabid Badaoui Craig W Beattie Christian Bendixen Daniel Berman Frank Blecha Jonas Blomberg Lars Bolund Mirte Bosse Sara Botti Zhan Bujie Megan Bystrom Boris Capitanu Denise Carvalho-Silva Patrick Chardon Celine Chen Ryan Cheng Sang-Haeng Choi William Chow Richard C Clark Christopher Clee Richard P M A Crooijmans Harry D Dawson Patrice Dehais Fioravante De Sapio Bert Dibbits Nizar Drou Zhi-Qiang Du Kellye Eversole João Fadista Susan Fairley Thomas Faraut Geoffrey J Faulkner Katie E Fowler Merete Fredholm Eric Fritz James G R Gilbert Elisabetta Giuffra Jan Gorodkin Darren K Griffin Jennifer L Harrow Alexander Hayward Kerstin Howe Zhi-Liang Hu Sean J Humphray Toby Hunt Henrik Hornshøj Jin-Tae Jeon Patric Jern Matthew Jones Jerzy Jurka Hiroyuki Kanamori Ronan Kapetanovic Jaebum Kim Jae-Hwan Kim Kyu-Won Kim Tae-Hun Kim Greger Larson Kyooyeol Lee Kyung-Tai Lee Richard Leggett Harris A Lewin Yingrui Li Wansheng Liu Jane E Loveland Yao Lu Joan K Lunney Jian Ma Ole Madsen Katherine Mann Lucy Matthews Stuart McLaren Takeya Morozumi Michael P Murtaugh Jitendra Narayan Dinh Truong Nguyen Peixiang Ni Song-Jung Oh Suneel Onteru Frank Panitz Eung-Woo Park Hong-Seog Park Geraldine Pascal Yogesh Paudel Miguel Perez-Enciso Ricardo Ramirez-Gonzalez James M Reecy Sandra Rodriguez-Zas Gary A Rohrer Lauretta Rund Yongming Sang Kyle Schachtschneider Joshua G Schraiber John Schwartz Linda Scobie Carol Scott Stephen Searle Bertrand Servin Bruce R Southey Goran Sperber Peter Stadler Jonathan V Sweedler Hakim Tafer Bo Thomsen Rashmi Wali Jian Wang Jun Wang Simon White Xun Xu Martine Yerle Guojie Zhang Jianguo Zhang Jie Zhang Shuhong Zhao Jane Rogers Carol Churcher Lawrence B Schook

Nature 2012 Nov;491(7424):393-8

Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, De Elst 1, 6708 WD, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ∼1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.

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http://www.umass.edu/vetimm/docs/Groenen_etal_2012.pdf
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November 2012
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