Modes of infant feeding and the occurrence of coughing/wheezing in the first year of life.

Authors:
Wilfried Karmaus
Wilfried Karmaus
University of South Carolina
United States
Hongmei Zhang
Hongmei Zhang
School of Public Health
New Haven | United States
Susan Davis
Susan Davis
Monash University
Australia
Saroochi Agarwal
Saroochi Agarwal
Houston Methodist Hospital Institute
Houston | United States
Alycia Albergottie
Alycia Albergottie
University of South Carolina
United States

J Hum Lact 2013 Feb 22;29(1):71-80. Epub 2012 Aug 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Background: Controversies regarding infant feeding and childhood wheezing may result from insufficient differentiation among various feeding modes.

Objectives: We conducted prospective analyses of associations between the repeated ascertainment of feeding mode and wheezing in infancy.

Methods: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2833 infants) provided data on coughing/wheezing episodes (CWEs) at 8 time points and feeding modes at 9 time points from months 1 to 12. Feeding modes were defined as direct breastfeeding, indirect breastfeeding (IBF, bottled breast milk), formula feeding (FF), and their combinations. In concurrent and delayed models using repeated measurements, the relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of different feeding modes for CWEs were estimated. In the delayed models, only infants without symptoms were considered at risk for consequent CWE.

Results: In a model with a 1-month delay, compared to direct breastfeeding, any other feeding mode showed a statistically significant risk for CWEs (IBF: RR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.05, 2.72]; FF: RR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.08, 1.47]; mixed breast feeding plus FF: RR = 1.25, 95% CI [1.01, 1.55]; and FF and direct breastfeeding: RR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.14, 1.68]). In a concurrent effect model, FF, the combination of FF and IBF, and mixed breastfeeding plus formula were risk factors (RR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.19, 1.59], RR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.27, 2.63], and RR=1.35, 95% CI [1.11, 1.65]; respectively).

Conclusions: Any mode of feeding that includes formula or bottled breast milk seems to be a moderate risk for cough or wheezing episodes in the first 12 months of life.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334412453083DOI Listing
February 2013
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