Food Chem Toxicol 2012 Aug 18;50(8):2916-22. Epub 2012 May 18.
Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.
Inophyllin A (INO-A), a pyranoxanthone isolated from the roots of Calophyllum inophyllum represents a new xanthone with potential chemotherapeutic activity. In this study, the molecular mechanism of INO-A-induced cell death was investigated in Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Assessment of phosphatidylserine exposure confirmed apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death in INO-A-treated Jurkat cells. INO-A treatment for only 30 min resulted in a significant increase of tail moment which suggests that DNA damage is an early apoptotic signal. Further flow cytometric assessment of the superoxide anion level confirmed that INO-A induced DNA damage was mediated with a concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Investigation on the thiols revealed an early decrease of free thiols in 30 min after 50 μM INO-A treatment. Using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, a potentiometric dye, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MPP) was observed in INO-A-treated cells as early as 30 min. The INO-A-induced apoptosis progressed with the simultaneous activation of caspases-2 and -9 which then led to the processing of caspase-3. Taken together, these data demonstrate that INO-A induced early oxidative stress, DNA damage and loss of MMP which subsequently led to the activation of an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in Jurkat cells.