DNA Repair (Amst) 2012 Jun 26;11(6):537-49. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Howard University, 520 W Street, NW, Washington, DC 20059, USA.
RECQ1 is the most abundant RecQ homolog in humans but its functions have remained mostly elusive. Biochemically, RECQ1 displays distinct substrate specificities from WRN and BLM, indicating that these RecQ helicases likely perform non-overlapping functions. Our earlier work demonstrated that RECQ1-deficient cells display spontaneous genomic instability. We have obtained key evidence suggesting a unique role of RECQ1 in repair of oxidative DNA damage. We show that similar to WRN, RECQ1 associates with PARP-1 in nuclear extracts and exhibits direct protein interaction in vitro. Deficiency in WRN or BLM helicases have been shown to result in reduced homologous recombination and hyperactivation of PARP under basal condition. However, RECQ1-deficiency did not lead to PARP activation in undamaged cells and nor did it result in reduction in homologous recombination repair. In stark contrast to what is seen in WRN-deficiency, RECQ1-deficient cells hyperactivate PARP in a specific response to H₂O₂treatment. RECQ1-deficient cells are more sensitive to oxidative DNA damage and exposure to oxidative stress results in a rapid and reversible recruitment of RECQ1 to chromatin. Chromatin localization of RECQ1 precedes WRN helicase, which has been shown to function in oxidative DNA damage repair. However, oxidative DNA damage-induced chromatin recruitment of these RecQ helicases is independent of PARP activity. As other RecQ helicases are known to interact with PARP-1, this study provides a paradigm to delineate specialized and redundant functions of RecQ homologs in repair of oxidative DNA damage.