J Phys Chem A 2012 Mar 22;116(9):2209-24. Epub 2012 Feb 22.
Dean's Office, College of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Chemistry, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837, United States.
The role of the binary nucleation of sulfuric acid in aerosol formation and its implications for global warming is one of the fundamental unsettled questions in atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated the thermodynamics of sulfuric acid hydration using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. For H(2)SO(4)(H(2)O)(n) where n = 1-6, we used a scheme combining molecular dynamics configurational sampling with high-level ab initio calculations to locate the global and many low lying local minima for each cluster size. For each isomer, we extrapolated the Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies to their complete basis set (CBS) limit and added finite temperature corrections within the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator (RRHO) model using scaled harmonic vibrational frequencies. We found that ionic pair (HSO(4)(-)·H(3)O(+))(H(2)O)(n-1) clusters are competitive with the neutral (H(2)SO(4))(H(2)O)(n) clusters for n ≥ 3 and are more stable than neutral clusters for n ≥ 4 depending on the temperature. The Boltzmann averaged Gibbs free energies for the formation of H(2)SO(4)(H(2)O)(n) clusters are favorable in colder regions of the troposphere (T = 216.65-273.15 K) for n = 1-6, but the formation of clusters with n ≥ 5 is not favorable at higher (T > 273.15 K) temperatures. Our results suggest the critical cluster of a binary H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O system must contain more than one H(2)SO(4) and are in concert with recent findings (1) that the role of binary nucleation is small at ambient conditions, but significant at colder regions of the troposphere. Overall, the results support the idea that binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water cannot account for nucleation of sulfuric acid in the lower troposphere.
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