Int Rev Neurobiol 2011 ;101:95-144
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
This chapter has carried out a review of the literature and combined this with the results of in-house studies to identify candidate blood-based biomarkers for schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug response. Literature searches retrieved 185 publications describing a total of 273 schizophrenia biomarkers identified in serum and/or plasma. Examination of seven in-house multicenter studies resulted in the identification of 137 serum/plasma biomarkers. Taken together, the findings suggested an ongoing immunological and inflammatory process in schizophrenia. This was accompanied by altered cortisol levels which suggested activated stress response and altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in these patients. The authors conclude that such biomarkers may prove useful as additional parameters for characterizing specific immune and/or metabolic or hormonal subsystems in schizophrenia and might, therefore, facilitate the development of future patient stratification and personalized medicine strategies.