J Med Chem 2011 Dec 16;54(24):8632-45. Epub 2011 Nov 16.
Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK.
We herein report phosphorodiamidates as a significant new phosphate prodrug motif. Sixty-seven phosphorodiamidates are reported of two 6-O-alkyl 2'-C-methyl guanosines, with significant variation in the diamidate structure. Both symmetrical and asymmetric phosphorodiamidates are reported, derived from various esterified amino acids, both d and l, and also from various simple amines. All of the compounds were evaluated versus hepatitis C virus in replicon assay, and nanomolar activity levels were observed. Many compounds were noncytotoxic at 100 μM, leading to high antiviral selectivities. The agents are stable in acidic, neutral, and moderately basic media and in selected biological media but show efficient processing by carboxypeptidases and efficiently yield the free nucleoside monophosphate in cells. On the basis of in vitro data, eight leads were selected for additional in vivo evaluation, with the intent of selecting one candidate for progression toward clinical studies. This phosphorodiamidate prodrug method may have broad application outside of HCV and antivirals as it offers many of the advantages of phosphoramidate ProTides but without the chirality issues present in most cases.