Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes tumor cell death by inducing macrophage membrane tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

J Biol Chem 2011 Oct 16;286(41):35943-54. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 104, Taiwan.

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an intrinsic anti-angiogenic factor and a potential anti-tumor agent. The tumoricidal mechanism of PEDF, however, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that PEDF induces the apoptosis of TC-1 and SK-Hep-1 tumor cells when they are cocultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). This macrophage-mediated tumor killing is prevented by blockage of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) following treatment with the soluble TRAIL receptor. PEDF also increases the amount of membrane-bound TRAIL on cultured mouse BMDMs and on macrophages surrounding subcutaneous tumors. PEDF-induced tumor killing and TRAIL induction are abrogated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonists or small interfering RNAs targeting PPARγ. PEDF also induces PPARγ in BMDMs. Furthermore, the activity of the TRAIL promoter in human macrophages is increased by PEDF stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA pull-down assays confirmed that endogenous PPARγ binds to a functional PPAR-response element (PPRE) in the TRAIL promoter, and mutation of this PPRE abolishes the binding of the PPARγ-RXRα heterodimer. Also, PPARγ-dependent transactivation and PPARγ-RXRα binding to this PPRE are prevented by PPARγ antagonists. Our results provide a novel mechanism for the tumoricidal activity of PEDF, which involves tumor cell killing via PPARγ-mediated TRAIL induction in macrophages.

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http://www.jbc.org/lookup/doi/10.1074/jbc.M111.266064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.266064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195575PMC
October 2011
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