J Hypertens 2011 Sep;29(9):1719-30
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.
Objective: Observational epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have documented that dietary potassium intake lowers blood pressure (BP). We examined the association between genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and BP responses to potassium intervention.
Methods: A 7-day high-sodium followed by a 7-day high-sodium plus 60 mmol/day potassium-supplementation feeding study was conducted among 1906 participants from rural northern China. Nine BP measurements were obtained at each intervention phase using a random-zero sphygmomanometer and 181 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 candidate genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were used for analyses.
Results: Several SNPs in nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2 (NR3C2), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), and hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2) genes were significantly associated with BP responses to potassium intervention. For example, the number of G alleles of the N554S missense mutation (rs5527) of NR3C2 was significantly associated with greater SBP responses to potassium intervention; mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] responses (mmHg) were -3.33 (-3.65 to -3.02) for genotype A/A and -5.47 (-6.64 to -4.29) for A/G, respectively (P value = 0.0004). In addition, the number of C alleles of the A1166C variant (rs5186) in AGTR1 was significantly and inversely associated with SBP responses to potassium intervention; mean (95% CI) responses were -3.55 (-3.87 to -3.24) for genotype A/A, -2.45 (-3.27 to -1.62) for A/C, and 3.25 (-5.73 to 12.23) for CC (P value = 0.003).
Conclusion: These novel findings indicated that genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may play an important role in determining an individual's BP responses to dietary potassium intake.