Biomaterials 2011 Sep 14;32(26):5945-56. Epub 2011 Jun 14.
Aspirant of FRS-FNRS, Belgium.
This study investigates the potential of bone marrow (BM-MSCs) versus adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) to potentiate the oxygenation of encapsulated islets in a subcutaneous bioartificial pancreas. Oxygen pressures (inside subcutaneous implants) were followed in vivo (by electronic paramagnetic resonance) in non-diabetic/diabetic rats transplanted with encapsulated porcine islets or empty implants up to 4 weeks post-transplantation. After graft explantation, neoangiogenesis surrounding the implants was assessed by histomorphometry. Angiogenic properties of BM-MSCs and AMSCs were first assessed in vitro by incubation of the cells in hypoxia chambers, under normoxic/hypoxic and hypo-/hyperglycemic conditions, followed by quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. Second, the in vivo aspect was studied by subcutaneous transplantation of encapsulated BM-MSCs and AMSCs in diabetic rats and assessment of the cells' angiogenic properties as described above. Diabetic state and islet encapsulation induced a significant decrease of oxygenation of the subcutaneous implant and an increased number of cells expressing VEGF. AMSCs demonstrated a significantly higher VEGF secretion than BM-MSCs in vitro. In vivo, AMSCs improved the implant's oxygenation and vascularization. Diabetes and islet encapsulation significantly reduced the oxygenation of a subcutaneous bioartificial pancreas. AMSCs can improve oxygenation by VEGF release in hypoxia and hyperglycemia states.