The effect of hypertension and diabetes on the degree of renal function deterioration after unilateral nephrectomy.

BJU Int 2011 Nov 19;108(9):1508-12. Epub 2011 May 19.

Wagga Wagga Base Hospital Calvary Hospital, Wagga Wagga NSW, Australia.

Objective: • To quantify the effect of hypertension and diabetes - which have been identified as both initiating and progressing factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as predictors of long-term renal impairment in patients undergoing nephrectomy - on renal function after unilateral nephrectomy for malignancy.

Patients And Methods: • A retrospective analysis was carried out of 80 unilateral nephrectomies performed at the Wagga Wagga Base Hospital, Calvary Private Hospital and Austin Hospital from January 2007 to December 2009. • Prognostic variables were patient age, sex and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. • The percentage reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after nephrectomy was measured and compared between variables using a two-sample Student's t-test.

Results: • All patients who had diabetes also had hypertension. • Of the 80 patients, 22 (27.5%) fulfilled the criteria for CKD with a preoperative GFR < 60 mL/min. • Patients with hypertension and diabetes had a significantly greater percentage reduction in postoperative GFR (36 ± 2%) than those who had neither risk factor (23 ± 2%, P < 0.003). A similar finding was observed for patients with hypertension alone (32 ± 1%, P < 0.009). • The difference in postoperative GFR reduction between diabetics and those with hypertension alone was not statistically significant (P= 0.205). • The differential reduction in GFR in patients with CKD risk factors persisted at 3-12 months follow-up.

Conclusions: • An increased percentage reduction in GFR is seen in patients with hypertension and diabetes undergoing unilateral nephrectomy for malignancy. • These data could be used to identify those patients who would benefit from early referral and subsequent intervention to delay the progression of CKD, as well as those for whom nephron-sparing surgery might be a more appropriate surgical option.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10241.xDOI Listing
November 2011
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