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    Facilitation and interference components in the joint Simon task.
    Exp Brain Res 2011 Jun 10;211(3-4):337-43. Epub 2011 May 10.
    Dipartimento di Comunicazione e Economia, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Allegri 9, 42121 Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Two experiments were conducted to assess whether the joint Simon effect is composed of facilitation and interference and whether facilitation is increased by a joint spatially compatible practice performed before performing the joint Simon task. In both experiments, participants were required to perform a Simon task along another person. Trials could be corresponding, non-corresponding, and neutral. In Experiment 1, participants performed only the Simon task. In Experiment 2, participants first practiced on a joint spatial compatibility task with a compatible mapping and, after a 5-min delay, transferred to a joint Simon task. Results indicated that the joint Simon effect consisted primarily of interference, which was significantly increased by a spatially compatible practice performed jointly. These results allow us to better define in what ways the presence of the other influences performance, in showing that when participants perform a task along with another individual, they display a disadvantage (i.e., slower RTs) when they have to respond to stimuli appearing on the other agent's side.

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    PLoS One 2017 14;12(9):e0184844. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    In a joint go/no-go Simon task, each of two participants is to respond to one of two non-spatial stimulus features by means of a spatially lateralized response. Stimulus position varies horizontally and responses are faster and more accurate when response side and stimulus position match (compatible trial) than when they mismatch (incompatible trial), defining the social Simon effect or joint spatial compatibility effect. This effect was originally explained in terms of action/task co-representation, assuming that the co-actor's action is automatically co-represented. Read More
    The joint flanker effect and the joint Simon effect: On the comparability of processes underlying joint compatibility effects.
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2017 Sep 22;70(9):1808-1823. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    a Institut für Psychologie , Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg , Freiburg , Germany.
    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. Read More
    The carry-over effect of competition in task-sharing: evidence from the joint Simon task.
    PLoS One 2014 4;9(6):e97991. Epub 2014 Jun 4.
    Department of Communication and Economics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    The Simon effect, that is the advantage of the spatial correspondence between stimulus and response locations when stimulus location is a task-irrelevant dimension, occurs even when the task is performed together by two participants, each performing a go/no-go task. Previous studies showed that this joint Simon effect, considered by some authors as a measure of self-other integration, does not emerge when during task performance co-actors are required to compete. The present study investigated whether and for how long competition experienced during joint performance of one task can affect performance in a following joint Simon task. Read More
    Trial-to-trial sequential dependencies in a social and non-social Simon task.
    Psychol Res 2011 Sep 18;75(5):366-75. Epub 2010 Nov 18.
    Department of Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Recent research has shown that joint-action effects in a social Simon task provide a good index of action co-representation. The present study aimed to specify the mechanisms underlying joint action by considering trial-to-trial transitions. Using non-social stimuli, we assigned a Simon task to two participants. Read More