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    Contextual determinants of the social-transfer-of-learning effect.
    Exp Brain Res 2011 Jun 22;211(3-4):415-22. Epub 2011 Apr 22.
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    A recent study (Milanese et al. in Cogn 116(1):15-22, 2010) showed that performing a spatial compatibility task with incompatible S-R links (i.e., the practice task) alongside a co-actor eliminates the Simon effect in a subsequent joint Simon task (i.e., the transfer task). In the present study, we conducted three experiments to individuate which elements of the practice task need to remain constant for this social-transfer-of-learning to occur. In Experiment 1, participants performed the practice task alongside a co-actor and the Simon task with a different co-actor; in Experiment 2, they performed the practice task alongside a co-actor and the Simon task with the same co-actor after exchanging their seats. Results showed a modulation of the joint Simon effect in Experiment 1 only. In Experiment 2, we found a regular joint Simon effect. These results indicate that, while co-actor identity is not crucial, other elements of the context, such as keeping the same position across tasks, are necessary for the social-transfer-of-learning to occur. On the whole, our data suggest that the social-transfer-of-learning effect is not tuned to a specific co-actor and depends on spatial parameters of the practice and transfer tasks.

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    Cognition 2010 Jul 8;116(1):15-22. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    We investigated whether performing a task with a co-actor shapes the way a subsequent task is performed. In four experiments participants were administered a Simon task after practicing a spatial compatibility task with an incompatible S-R mapping. In Experiment 1 they performed both tasks alongside another person; in Experiment 2 they performed the spatial compatibility task alone, responding to only one stimulus position, and the Simon task with another person; in Experiment 3, they performed the spatial compatibility task with another person and the Simon task alone; finally, in Experiment 4, they performed the spatial compatibility task alone and the Simon task with another person. Read More
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    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2017 Sep 22;70(9):1808-1823. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    a Institut für Psychologie , Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg , Freiburg , Germany.
    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. Read More
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    Exp Brain Res 2015 Nov 12;233(11):3313-21. Epub 2015 Aug 12.
    Programa de Pós-graduação em Neurociências, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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    PLoS One 2017 14;12(9):e0184844. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    In a joint go/no-go Simon task, each of two participants is to respond to one of two non-spatial stimulus features by means of a spatially lateralized response. Stimulus position varies horizontally and responses are faster and more accurate when response side and stimulus position match (compatible trial) than when they mismatch (incompatible trial), defining the social Simon effect or joint spatial compatibility effect. This effect was originally explained in terms of action/task co-representation, assuming that the co-actor's action is automatically co-represented. Read More