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    Contextual determinants of the social-transfer-of-learning effect.
    Exp Brain Res 2011 Jun 22;211(3-4):415-22. Epub 2011 Apr 22.
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    A recent study (Milanese et al. in Cogn 116(1):15-22, 2010) showed that performing a spatial compatibility task with incompatible S-R links (i.e., the practice task) alongside a co-actor eliminates the Simon effect in a subsequent joint Simon task (i.e., the transfer task). In the present study, we conducted three experiments to individuate which elements of the practice task need to remain constant for this social-transfer-of-learning to occur. In Experiment 1, participants performed the practice task alongside a co-actor and the Simon task with a different co-actor; in Experiment 2, they performed the practice task alongside a co-actor and the Simon task with the same co-actor after exchanging their seats. Results showed a modulation of the joint Simon effect in Experiment 1 only. In Experiment 2, we found a regular joint Simon effect. These results indicate that, while co-actor identity is not crucial, other elements of the context, such as keeping the same position across tasks, are necessary for the social-transfer-of-learning to occur. On the whole, our data suggest that the social-transfer-of-learning effect is not tuned to a specific co-actor and depends on spatial parameters of the practice and transfer tasks.

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    Shared learning shapes human performance: Transfer effects in task sharing.
    Cognition 2010 Jul 8;116(1):15-22. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    We investigated whether performing a task with a co-actor shapes the way a subsequent task is performed. In four experiments participants were administered a Simon task after practicing a spatial compatibility task with an incompatible S-R mapping. In Experiment 1 they performed both tasks alongside another person; in Experiment 2 they performed the spatial compatibility task alone, responding to only one stimulus position, and the Simon task with another person; in Experiment 3, they performed the spatial compatibility task with another person and the Simon task alone; finally, in Experiment 4, they performed the spatial compatibility task alone and the Simon task with another person. Read More
    The joint flanker effect and the joint Simon effect: On the comparability of processes underlying joint compatibility effects.
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2017 Sep 22;70(9):1808-1823. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    a Institut für Psychologie , Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg , Freiburg , Germany.
    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. Read More
    Influence of short incompatible practice on the Simon effect: transfer along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.
    Exp Brain Res 2015 Nov 12;233(11):3313-21. Epub 2015 Aug 12.
    Programa de Pós-graduação em Neurociências, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    In spatial compatibility and Simon tasks, the response is faster when stimulus and response locations are on the same side than when they are on opposite sides. It has been shown that a spatial incompatible practice leads to a subsequent modulation of the Simon effect along the horizontal dimension. It has also been reported that this modulation occurs both along and across vertical and horizontal dimensions, but only after intensive incompatible training (600 trials). Read More
    Transfer effects of incompatible location-relevant mappings on a subsequent visual or auditory simon task.
    Mem Cognit 2003 Oct;31(7):1146-52
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2081, USA.
    Two experiments investigated the influence of practice with an incompatible mapping of left and right stimuli to keypress responses on performance of a subsequent Simon task, for which stimulus location was irrelevant, after a delay of 5 min or 1 week. In Experiment 1, the visual Simon effect was eliminated when the practice modality was auditory and reversed to favor noncorresponding responses when it was visual, and there was no significant effect of delay interval. In Experiment 2, significant auditory Simon effects were obtained that did not vary as a function of practice modality, with delay having only a marginal effect on the magnitude of the Simon effect. Read More