Drug Metab Dispos 2011 Jun 7;39(6):1039-46. Epub 2011 Mar 7.
Discovery ADME, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, WSJ-350.3.12, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.
Although reversible CYP3A inhibition testing is well established for predicting the drug-drug interaction potential of clinical candidates, time-dependent inhibition (TDI) has become the focus of drug designers only recently. Failure of several late-stage clinical candidates has been attributed to TDI, and this mechanism is also suspected to play a role in liver toxicities often observed in preclinical species. Measurement of enzyme inactivation rates (k(inact) and K(I)) is technically challenging, and a great deal of variability can be found in the literature. In this article, we have evaluated the TDI potential for 400 registered drugs using a high-throughput assay format based on determination of the inactivation rate (k(obs)) at a single concentration of test compound (10 μM). The advantages of this new assay format are highlighted by comparison with data generated using the IC₅₀ shift assay, a current standard approach for preliminary assessment of TDI. With use of an empirically defined positive/negative k(obs) bin of 0.02 min⁻¹, only 4% of registered drugs were found to be positive. This proportion increased to more than 20% when in-house lead optimization molecules were considered, emphasizing the importance of identifying this property in selection of promising drug candidates. Finally, it is suggested that the data and technology described here may be a good basis for building structure-activity relationships and in silico modeling.