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    An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly.
    Complement Ther Clin Pract 2011 Feb 18;17(1):58-62. Epub 2010 May 18.
    Manisa School of Health, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey.
    This research, conducted at two rest homes in Manisa, Turkey, was undertaken to examine the effect of castor oil pack (COP) administrations on constipation in the elderly. Study participants were monitored for 7 days before, 3 days during, and 4 days after COP administration utilizing the Recall Bias and Visual Scale Analog (RB-VSAQ) as well as the Standard Diary developed by Pamuk et al. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Repeated Measures, Bonferroni, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data analysis. Eighty percent of study subjects had been constipated for 10 years or longer. COP administration did not have an effect on the number of bowel movements or amount of feces, but decreased the feces consistency score, straining during defecation and feeling of complete evacuation after a bowel movement, thus decreasing symptoms of constipation. We conclude that COP may be used for controlling symptoms of constipation.

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    Revalidation of description of constipation in terms of recall bias and visual scale analog questionnaire.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003 Dec;18(12):1417-22
    Department of Internal Medicine, Trakya University Medical School, Edirne, Turkey.
    Background And Aim: The present study was designed to identify a cut-off value to define subjective and relatively objective criteria of constipation using the visual scale analog questionnaire (VSAQ) in healthy subjects. In addition, the importance of recall bias when evaluating constipation was investigated by repeating the questionnaire and ensuring the subjects maintained diaries.

    Methods: Seven hundred and sixty healthy hospital personnel were questioned by means of a standard questionnaire. Read More
    Symptoms in chronic constipation.
    Dis Colon Rectum 1997 Aug;40(8):902-6
    Department of Internal Medicine, Park-Klinik Weissensee, Berlin, Germany.
    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate whether detailed symptom analysis would help to identify pathophysiologic subgroups in chronic constipation.

    Methods: In 190 patients with chronic constipation (age, 53 (range, 18-88) years; 85 percent of whom were women), symptom evaluation, transit time measurement (radiopaque markers), and functional rectoanal evaluation (proctoscopy, anorectal manometry, defecography) were performed. Patients were classified on the basis of objective data from all tests in four different groups ("disordered defecation," "slow gastrointestinal transit," "disordered defecation combined with slow-transit stool," and "no pathologic finding"). Read More
    Efficacy of linaclotide for patients with chronic constipation.
    Gastroenterology 2010 Mar 4;138(3):886-95.e1. Epub 2010 Jan 4.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Background & Aims: Linaclotide is a minimally absorbed peptide agonist of the guanylate cyclase-C receptor that stimulates intestinal fluid secretion and transit and reduces pain in animal models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a range of linaclotide doses in patients with chronic constipation.

    Methods: We performed a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 310 patients with chronic constipation. Read More
    Effect of MKC-733, a 5-HT receptor partial agonist, on bowel motility and symptoms in subjects with constipation: an exploratory study.
    J Clin Pharm Ther 2005 Dec;30(6):611-22
    Department of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan.
    Background: MKC-733, a 5-HT(3) receptor partial agonist, is a novel enteroprokinetic compound.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of MKC-733 on bowel motility and symptoms in a small group of subjects with constipation. Tolerability was also examined. Read More