Hosp Pract (1995) 2010 Nov;38(4):138-46
Boston Healthcare Associates, Inc., Boston, MA 02110, USA.
Background: The addition of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) to heparin in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures has been demonstrated to reduce ischemic complications; however, GPI use is known to increase the risk of bleeding events, which are linked to increased mortality, longer hospital length of stay, greater medical resource utilization, and increased costs. New antithrombotic therapies have the potential to improve clinical outcomes and decrease costs. The Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) study of bivalirudin demonstrated significantly reduced clinical event rates (mortality and bleeding) compared with an unfractionated heparin (UFH)+GPI regimen.
Objective: The potential clinical and economic value of implementing a bivalirudin-based strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients receiving primary PCI (PPCI) is compared with current UFH+GPI-based practice from a US hospital perspective.
Methods: A budget impact model was developed to compare treatment of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI with a bivalirudin- or UFH+GPI-based strategy. Clinical data for the model were derived from the HORIZONS-AMI trial, and included 30-day event rates for major complications (eg, protocol bleeding, Q-wave MI, repeat PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft procedures). United States cost data and clinical practice data were derived from a Premier Perspective™ database analysis and published sources.
Results: Overall, average procedure costs per UFH+GPI-treated patient were $18,561. Treating patients with bivalirudin (incorporating 7.2% provisional GPI use per HORIZONS-AMI) may save $1690 per patient (average procedural cost, $16,872). In extrapolating these benefits to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommended institutional minimum of 36 PPCIs annually, 1 major bleeding event (3.7%) and 3 minor bleeding events (6.8%) could be averted with use of bivalirudin. In addition, introducing a bivalirudin-based strategy to treat a minimum cohort of 36 STEMI patients would save the hospital budget $60,807 (9%) per year.
Conclusion: Using a bivalirudin-based strategy in STEMI patients undergoing PPCI is associated with favorable clinical and economic outcomes when compared with an UFH+GPI-based strategy in a US hospital setting.