Recently, we demonstrated that C57BL/6 mice are more susceptible to experimental lagochilascariosis than BALB/c mice. To investigate the pattern of infection and the role of the genetic background on susceptibility to infection, we studied experimental lagochilascariosis in H-2(a) identical B10.A and A/J mice. Infected B10.A mice had a lower survival ratio and more severe lesions in the lungs than did A/J mice. Splenocytes of A/J mice immunized with the crude extract of the parasite showed increased proliferation and produced a higher level of interleukin 10 and interferon-gamma in the presence of CE or concanavalin A when compared to B10.A mice. This suggests that resistance of A/J mice may be due to less severe lesions in lungs and other organs and a better immune response to parasite antigens. This paper provides evidence that major histocompatibility complex haplotype does not influence the survival to experimental infection with L. minor.