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    Desorption electrospray ionization and other ambient ionization methods: current progress and preview.
    Analyst 2010 Apr 2;135(4):669-81. Epub 2010 Mar 2.
    Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
    Mass spectrometry allows rapid chemical analysis of untreated samples in the ambient environment. This is a result of recent rapid progress in ambient ionization techniques. The most widely studied of these new methods, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), uses fast-moving solvent droplets to extract analytes from surfaces and propel the resulting secondary microdroplets towards the mass analyzer. This review of DESI and other ambient methods centers on the accompanying chemical processes. Manipulation of the chemistry accompanying ambient ionization can be used to optimize chemical analysis, including molecular imaging. Solvent effects, geometry effects, electrochemical processes and mechanisms are covered. Extensions of the methodology to solution-phase analysis, to stand-off detection and to therapeutic drug analysis using miniature mass spectrometers are also treated.

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    Department of Chemistry and Center for Analytical Instrumentation Development, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
    The state-of-the-art in two new ambient ionization methods for mass spectrometry, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and paper spray (PS), is described and their utility is illustrated with new studies on tissue imaging and biofluid analysis. DESI is an ambient ionization method that can be performed on untreated histological sections of biological tissue in the open lab environment to image lipids, fatty acids, hormones and other compounds. Paper spray is performed in the open lab too; it involves electrospraying dry blood spots or biofluid deposits from a porous medium. Read More
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    Anal Chem 2007 Sep 14;79(18):7069-77. Epub 2007 Aug 14.
    Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
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    Analyst 2010 Apr 2;135(4):661-8. Epub 2010 Mar 2.
    Clinical Pharmacology and DMPK, AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood, Bakewell Road, Loughborough, UK LE11 5RH.
    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry allows the rapid analysis of samples or objects in their native state in the open environment with no prior preparation. Over the past six years, the ability of these techniques to provide selective analyte desorption and ionization, in combination with mass spectrometry (MS), has provided a growing number of powerful analytical alternatives across broad application areas, both quantitative and qualitative in nature, including pharmaceutical analysis, process chemistry, biological imaging, in vivo analysis, proteomics, metabolomics, forensics, and explosives detection. With the emergence of new ambient ionization methods, and the complementary nature of existing desorption and/or ionization techniques, additional hyphenated methods have been devised, which pushes the total number of documented methods to almost thirty. Read More
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    Anal Chim Acta 2011 Sep 22;702(1):1-15. Epub 2011 Jun 22.
    Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
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