Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Allied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
Despite the evidence describing the rapid vascular function modifications to commencement and cessation of large muscle exercises (i.e. cycling), no studies examined the time-course vascular modifications to localized training and detraining. This study aimed to examine the effects of 4-week rhythmic handgrip exercise training and 2-week detraining on reactive hyperemic forearm blood flow and vascular resistance in 11 young men. Rhythmic handgrip exercise was performed in the non-dominant forearm for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of no training. Forearm blood flow and vascular resistance were evaluated, in both arms, at rest and following arterial occlusion. These vascular function indices were obtained in five visits; before, after 1 and 4 week(s) of training as well as after 1 and 2 week(s) of training cessation. Resting cardiovascular measures were not altered during the study period. A 2 (arms) x 5 (visits) ANOVA revealed significant arms-by-visits interactions for reactive hyperemic forearm blood flow (p = 0.02) and vascular resistance (p = 0.02). Subsequent comparison demonstrated increased trained forearm reactive hyperemic blood flow 1 week after training, then returned to pre-training values 1 week following training cessation. In contrast, vascular resistance decreased 1 week after training commencement, only to return to pretraining level 1 week after training cessation. These results indicate a rapid, unilateral improvement in regional reactive hyperemic blood flow and vascular resistance following localized exercise-training. However, the improvements are transient and return to pretraining levels 1 week after detraining.
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