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    Cervicofacial cystic hygroma. Patterns of recurrence and management of the difficult case.
    Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991 May;117(5):546-53
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.
    Cystic hygromas usually present in infancy or early childhood as compressible masses that may rapidly and intermittently enlarge. While they may arise in any anatomic location, hygromas of the head and neck are especially difficult to manage since enlargement may cause serious sequela such as airway obstruction, feeding difficulties, and speech pathology. Complete extirpation of these lesions is often impossible, and recurrence rates are accordingly high. We reviewed our 10-year experience in treating cervicofacial cystic hygromas. Of 34 patients, 21 had lesions cephalad to the hyoid and 13 had lesions caudal to the hyoid. While none of the 13 children with infrahyoid lesions demonstrated feeding or respiratory difficulties, eight of 21 children with suprahyoid involvement presented with dysphagia or airway compromise. The recurrence rates for infrahyoid and suprahyoid lesions were 15% and 81%, respectively. Those children with suprahyoid hygromas also experienced an increased operative complication rate compared with patients with infrahyoid involvement. Principles of management for suprahyoid and infrahyoid lesions are described, including the specific management of lingual, submandibular, parotid, and parotofacial hygromas.

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    Surgical treatment of cervicofacial cystic hygromas in children.
    ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2005 1;67(6):331-4. Epub 2005 Dec 1.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Emek, Turkey.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of cervicofacial cystic hygromas in children.

    Patients And Methods: Medical records of 17 patients who were operated for cervicofacial cystic hygroma between 1985 and 2004 were evaluated in terms of age, gender, symptoms, diagnostic workups, outcomes and complications.

    Results: There was a slight male predominance -- 10 (59%) boys and 7 (41%) girls. Read More
    Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck: a retrospective review and a support for staging.
    Head Neck 2001 Apr;23(4):326-37
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Service, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Saint-Luc University Hospital, Hippocrate Avenue 10, B-1200, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: Lymphatic malformations (LM) are rare benign congenital tumors appearing mainly in the head and neck with a considerably variable outcome. A need exists to validate a staging system, taking into account the prognosis of the malformation, including preoperative and postoperative complications, long-term sequelae, and persistence of the disease to improve parental counseling and evaluate the outcome of a surgical treatment of such tumors.

    Methods: Twenty-two patients treated for LM were selected from a series of 129 patients operated on for congenital malformations of the head and neck between 1986 and 1997 at St-Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. Read More
    [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of cervical lymphangioma].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2009 Dec;89(48):3413-6
    Department of Otolaryngology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.
    Objective: To discuss the methods of surgical treatment and their timing choices of cervical lymphangioma.

    Methods: A retrospective review of 53 patients with cervicofacial lymphangioma were treated surgically from July 1990 to December 2008. The age at operation was from 6. Read More