Department of Clinical Microbiology and School of Medicine University of Split, Split, Croatia.
Background: Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are chronic diseases that rarely occur concomitantly. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in involved tissues. Tuberculosis is infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis characterized by granulomas with caseous necrosis.
Case Presentation: We present a case of 43-year-old female refugee from Kosovo with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary and skin sarcoidosis at the same time. Three weeks after corticosteroid therapy for pulmonary sarcoidosis was introduced, positive finding of mycobacterium culture of bronchial aspirate was observed. Based on these results, corticosteroid therapy was excluded and antituberculous therapy was introduced for six months. In the meantime, new nodes on face and nose appeared and skin sarcoidosis was diagnosed. The patient was given corticosteroids and colchicine according to the skin and pulmonary sarcoidosis therapy recommendation.
Conclusion: The authors of this study suggest that in cases when there is a dilemma in diagnosis between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis we should advance with corticosteroid therapy until we have microbiological confirmation of mycobacterium culture. This case is remarkable because this is a third described case of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis together (the first reported in Asia, the second in South Africa), and to authors knowledge, this is a first case report in Europe.