Annu Rev Nurs Res 2009 ;27:273-96
Medical College of Georgia, USA.
Worldwide, tobacco use continues to be the most significant preventable cause of death and hospital admissions, particularly related to respiratory diseases. Acute respiratory illnesses requiring hospitalization provide an opportunity for nurses to intervene and help smokers quit. Of the three top hospital admissions related to respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the one that continues to have increased mortality whereas community acquired pneumonia and asthma have decreased over the past 5 years. The course of all three can be caused or exacerbated by continued smoking. This review describes the state of the science of nursing research focused on tobacco cessation interventions for hospitalized patients with COPD, asthma, or community acquired pneumonia. Additionally, we describe two evidence-based, nurse-driven, hospital protocols to treat tobacco dependence that can serve as models of care. Recommendations are made as to how to effectively promote nursing interventions for tobacco cessation in the acute care setting.