Carcinogenesis 2010 Mar 16;31(3):411-8. Epub 2009 Dec 16.
Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of General Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-Strasse 27, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
The identification of genes involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression is of great interest since these genes might be feasible as candidates for new tumor-targeted therapy strategies. Chimeric tumor suppressor-1 (CTS-1), an artificial synthetic variant of p53, resists common p53 inactivation and could therefore be defined as a dominant-positive p53 variant. Overexpression of CTS-1 induces caspase-independent cell death. We used whole-genome microarray expression analysis in a parental (229(P)) and a CTS-1-resistant glioma cell line (229(Res)) to analyze alterations in gene expression in Ad-CTS-1-infected and in uninfected parental and resistant cells. In total, 700 genes were differentially expressed in infected and 313 genes in uninfected 229(Res) versus 229(P) cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis determined a variety of differentially expressed genes in Ad-CTS-1-infected cells that were members of intracellular networks with central tumor-involved players such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB), protein kinase B/AKT or transforming growth factor-beta. Here we focused on the function of NFkappaB in Ad-CTS-1-mediated cell death in glioma. NFkappaB was activated in Ad-CTS-1-infected 229(P) but not 229(Res) cells. NFkappaB activation was accompanied by the induction of cell death in parental cells. Inhibition of NFkappaB activity by expression of an IkappaB super repressor or upregulation of the NFkappaB-linked gene Bex protected parental cells to Ad-CTS-1-induced cell death, whereas knockdown of Bex sensitized both parental and resistant cells. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of the normally antiapoptotic protein NFkappaB does not always necessarily protect cells from apoptosis but, in the glioma cell lines tested so far, and in an environment where p53 is constitutively active, also leads to the induction of cell death.