J Clin Oncol 2009 Oct 31;27(30):5008-14. Epub 2009 Aug 31.
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Purpose: Thalidomide and lenalidomide are immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) that produce high remission rates in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Pomalidomide is a new IMiD with high in vitro potency. We report, to our knowledge, the first phase II trial of pomalidomide administered in combination with low-dose dexamethasone for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
Patients And Methods: Pomalidomide was administered orally at a dose of 2 mg daily on days 1 through 28 of a 28-day cycle. Dexamethasone 40 mg daily was administered orally on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle. Responses were recorded using the criteria of the International Myeloma Working Group.
Results: Sixty patients were enrolled. Thirty-eight patients (63%) achieved confirmed response including complete response in three patients (5%), very good partial response in 17 patients (28%), and partial response in 18 patients (30%). Responses were seen in 40% of lenalidomide-refractory patients, 37% of thalidomide-refractory patients, and 60% of bortezomib-refractory patients. Responses were seen in 74% of patients with high-risk cytogenetic or molecular markers. Toxicity consisted primarily of myelosuppression. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity consisted of anemia (5%), thrombocytopenia (3%), and neutropenia (32%). One patient (1.6%) had a thromboembolic event. The median progression-free survival time was 11.6 months and was not significantly different in patients with high-risk disease compared with patients with standard-risk disease.
Conclusion: The combination of pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone is extremely active in the treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma, including high response rates in patients refractory to other novel agents.