Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a triacylglycerol (TAG) or an ethyl ester are protective against cardiovascular disease. Both have significant TAG-lowering effects. We developed a concentrated ethyl ester of DHA (MATK-90, 900 mg/g) using microalgae as its source. This study evaluated the effects that different doses of MATK-90 had on lipid levels and clinical parameters in male Wistar rats fed a high-fructose diet used to induce hypertriglyceridemia (TAG > or = 300 mg/dL). Effects of MATK-90 were compared to those produced by a pharmaceutical product (Lovaza, formerly Omacor, P-OM3; 465 mg EPA + 375 mg DHA), a TAG oil used in food (DHASCO, algal-DHA, 40% DHA by weight), and a control (corn oil). Doses of MATK-90 (0.6, 1.3, 2.5, 5.0 g kg(-1) day(-1)), algal-DHA (2 g DHA kg(-1) day(-1)), and P-OM3 (5.0 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were administered by oral gavage for 28 days. A significant dose-related decrease was observed in TAG and cholesterol levels in all but the lowest dose of MATK-90 treatment group vs. control. The high-dose group of MATK-90 and the P-OM3 group produced similar reductions in TAG levels.