Diabetes 2009 Sep 9;58(9):2148-61. Epub 2009 Jun 9.
Department of Medicine, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Objective: Clinical reports link use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exenatide and liraglutide to pancreatitis. However, whether these agents act on the exocrine pancreas is poorly understood.
Research Design And Methods: We assessed whether the antidiabetic agents exendin (Ex)-4, liraglutide, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, or the biguanide metformin were associated with changes in expression of genes associated with the development of experimental pancreatitis. The effects of Ex-4 when administered before or after the initiation of caerulein-induced experimental pancreatitis were determined. The importance of endogenous GLP-1R signaling for gene expression in the exocrine pancreas and the severity of pancreatitis was assessed in Glp1r(-/-) mice.
Results: Acute administration of Ex-4 increased expression of egr-1 and c-fos in the exocrine pancreas. Administration of Ex-4 or liraglutide for 1 week increased pancreas weight and induced expression of mRNA transcripts encoding the anti-inflammatory proteins pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) (RegIIIbeta) and RegIIIalpha. Chronic Ex-4 treatment of high-fat-fed mice increased expression of PAP and reduced pancreatic expression of mRNA transcripts encoding for the proinflammatory monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Sitagliptin and metformin did not significantly change pancreatic gene expression profiles. Ex-4 administered before or after caerulein did not modify the severity of experimental pancreatitis, and levels of pancreatic edema and serum amylase were comparable in caerulein-treated Glp1r(-/-) versus Glp1r(+/+) mice.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activation increases pancreatic mass and selectively modulates the expression of genes associated with pancreatitis. However, activation or genetic elimination of GLP-1R signaling does not modify the severity of experimental pancreatitis in mice.