The objective of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate microemulsion-based gel for the vaginal delivery of clotrimazole (CMZ). The solubility of CMZ in oils and surfactants was evaluated to identify components of the microemulsion. The ternary diagram was plotted to identify the area of microemulsion existence. Various gelling agents were evaluated for their potential to gel the CMZ microemulsion without affecting its structure. The bioadhesive potential and antifungal activity of the CMZ microemulsion-based gel (CMZ-MBG) was determined in comparison to the marketed clotrimazole gel (Candid-V gel) by in vitro methods. The chemical stability of CMZ in CMZ-MBG was determined as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The CMZ microemulsion exhibited globule size of 48.4 nm and polydispersity index of 0.75. Carbopol ETD 2020 could successfully gel the CMZ microemulsion without disturbing the structure. The CMZ-MBG showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) in vitro bioadhesion and antifungal activity as compared to that of Candid-V gel. The stability studies indicated that CMZ undergoes acidic pH-catalyzed degradation at all the storage conditions at the end of 3 months.