[Evaluation of selected endocrine complications in patients treated with auto- and allo-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

Med Wieku Rozwoj 2008 Jul-Sep;12(3):761-6

Katedra i Klinika Transplantacji Szpiku, Onkologii i Hematologii Dzieciecej, ul. Bujwida 44, 50-345 Wrocław, Poland.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the endocrine complications, in particular disorders of growth and thyroid function and glucose metabolism dysfunctions in patients treated with allo- and auto-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Material And Methods: The investigated group consisted of: I. 16 patients after auto-HSCT (6 girls, 10 boys) aged 3-20 years (average 10,8+/-) because of acute myelogenous leukaemia (n=5), non Hodgkin lymphoma (n=3), neuroblastoma (n=3), embryonal cancer (n=2), medulloblastoma (n=1), Ewing's sarcoma/PNET (n=1), hyper eosinophilic syndrome (n=1). High dose chemiotherapy (HDC/T) included: BU/MEL (busulfan/melfalan) (n=7), BEAM (carmustine, eteposide, cytosine arabinose, melfalan) (n=3). II. 30 patients after allo-HSCT (20 girls, 10 boys) aged 3-17 years (average 9,56). Indication for HSCT was acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n=11), acute myelogenous leukaemia (n=5), chronic myeloid leukaemia-CML (n=6), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=2), non Hodgkin lymphoma (n=1), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=1), severe aplastic anaemia (n=1), Blackfan-Diamond anaemia (n=1), severe combined immune deficiency (n=1), rhabdomyosarcoma (n=1). The patients underwent the following types of transplantation: HSCT of matched sibling donor (n=13), HSCT of matched unrelated donor (n=11) and HLA-mismatched related donor (n=6). The preparative regimens consisted of HDC/T usually BU/MEL (n=3); BU/CY/VP (busulfan, cyclophosphamide, etoposide) (6); BU/CY/ATG (anti-thymocyte globulin) (n=5), VP/ATG/TBI (total body irradiation) (n=3). 19 children received CI (cranial irradiation) prior to grafting: auto-HSCT (n=6) and allo-HSCT (n=13) and 6 patients underwent TBI. 18 children received high steroid doses at least 28 days before transplant, 4 patients in the auto-HSCT group, and in the allo-HSCT group 14 patients before and 20 after HSCT procedure. The analysis of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), prolactine (PRL), oral glucose tolerance test, growth hormone (GH test) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed in each case.

Results: Hypothyroidism was found in 5 patients (3 after allo-HSCT, 2 after auto-HSCT). Thyroid hormone substitution was applied. No case of hyperthyroidism was diagnosed. Growth deficit was found in 8 patients (6 girls, 2 boys) between 13 to 70 months after allo-transplantation (average 36 months). Three children from the above group received CI. Growth hormone substitution was applied in 1 girl (ALL, HLA MM REL, CI). An impaired excretion of GH after stimulation was diagnosed in 14 pts (10 after allo-HSCT, 4 after auto-HSCT). The growth process should still be observed in this subgroup. Glucose intolerance was found in 7 patients: in 4 treated with auto-HSCT and in 3 after allo-HSCT. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in none of them. An impaired glucose tolerance curve with increased excretion of insulin was diagnosed in 12 children.

Conclusions: Early endocrinological care is necessary in patients treated both with auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT due to high risk of hormonal disorders.

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April 2009
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