Diabetes Care 2009 May 17;32(5):845-50. Epub 2009 Feb 17.
Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular, and Immunological Sciences, Federico II University-Naples, Naples, Italy.
Objective: Incidence of type 2 diabetes might be associated with preexisting hypertension. There is no information on whether incident diabetes is predicted by blood pressure control. We evaluated the hazard of diabetes in relation to blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients.
Research Design And Methods: Nondiabetic, otherwise healthy, hypertensive patients (N = 1,754, mean +/- SD age 52 +/- 11 years, 43% women) participated in a network over 3.4 +/- 1 years of follow-up. Blood pressure was considered uncontrolled if systolic was >or=140 mmHg and/or diastolic was >or=90 mmHg at the last outpatient visit. Diabetes was defined according to American Diabetes Association guidelines.
Results: Uncontrolled blood pressure despite antihypertensive treatment was found in 712 patients (41%). At baseline, patients with uncontrolled blood pressure were slightly younger than patients with controlled blood pressure (51 +/- 11 vs. 53 +/- 12 years, P < 0.001), with no differences in sex distribution, BMI, duration of hypertension, baseline blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum creatinine and potassium, lipid profile, or prevalence of metabolic syndrome. During follow-up, 109 subjects developed diabetes. Incidence of diabetes was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled (8%) than in those with controlled blood pressure (4%, odds ratio 2.08, P < 0.0001). In Cox regression analysis controlling for baseline systolic blood pressure and BMI, family history of diabetes, and physical activity, uncontrolled blood pressure doubled the risk of incident diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, P < 0.001), independently of significant effects of age (HR 1.02 per year, P = 0.03) and baseline fasting glucose (HR 1.10 per mg/dl, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: In a large sample of treated nondiabetic hypertensive subjects, uncontrolled blood pressure is associated with twofold increased risk of incident diabetes independently of age, BMI, baseline blood pressure, or fasting glucose.