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    Social and emotional training in Swedish schools for the promotion of mental health: an effectiveness study of 5 years of intervention.
    Health Educ Res 2008 Dec 18;23(6):931-40. Epub 2008 Aug 18.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The school is an obvious arena for interventions designed to promote mental health among children. A set of educational techniques named social and emotional learning, which focuses on students' self-control, social competence, empathy, motivation and self-awareness, has shown promising results in the United States. This is a study of the application of a similar method in Sweden (referred to as social and emotional training) for school years 2000/2001 through to 2004/2005. It is an effectiveness rather than an efficacy study, largely administered by school personnel, which relates duration of the training (1-5 years) to a set of outcomes previously found to be associated with mental health. Positive and significant effects were found on five of seven variables: internalizing problems, externalizing problems, mastery (reflecting self-efficacy or hopelessness), self-image and self-esteem and contentment in school. Effect sizes were medium. Somewhat surprisingly, no relationship was found between the intervention and the promotion of social skills. Nor was there any detectable long-term impact on bullying. Controlling for student gender did not moderate any of the effects.

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    Social and emotional training in Swedish classrooms for the promotion of mental health: results from an effectiveness study in Sweden.
    Health Promot Int 2008 Jun 21;23(2):134-43. Epub 2008 Jan 21.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    J Adolesc 2009 Dec 30;32(6):1403-13. Epub 2009 Oct 30.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    BMC Public Health 2007 Nov 8;7:319. Epub 2007 Nov 8.
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health, SE-831 40 Ostersund, Sweden.
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    Promoting positive adult functioning through social development intervention in childhood: long-term effects from the Seattle Social Development Project.
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005 Jan;159(1):25-31
    Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, and Educational Psychology, College of Education, University of Washington, Seattle 98115, USA.
    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of the Seattle Social Development Project intervention in promoting positive adult functioning and preventing mental health problems, crime, and substance use (including tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs) at 21 years of age.

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