Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008 Aug;14(8):888-95
Alberta Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Foothills Hospital, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Two hundred patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from matched sibling donors (MSD) after myeloablative conditioning including fludarabine (Flu) and once-daily intravenous busulfan (Bu). Thymoglobulin (TG) was added to methotexate (MTX) and cyclosporine (CsA) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. For low-risk (acute leukemia CR1/CR2, CML CP1) patients projected 5-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) were 4% and 76% for those 45 (n = 31). For high-risk (HR) patients NRM was 6% versus 27% (18% at 1 year) (P = .04) and OS 64% versus 37% (P = .47) in younger (n = 40) and older (n = 75) patients, respectively. To correct for imbalance in HR diagnoses each of 17 younger HR patients were matched with 2 older HR (OHR) patients by diagnosis and details of stage, and thereafter for other risk factors. For the younger HR and OHR patients, respectively, OS was 70% versus 37% (P = .02) and NRM 0 versus 34% (P = .02). When outcomes of OHR patients were compared with the other 3 groups combined NRM was 27% versus 5%, respectively (P = .002). Incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade II-IV, aGVHD grade III-IV, and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 23% versus 10% (P = .02), 4% versus 2% (P = ns), and 66% versus 41% (P = .001), respectively. Nine of 14 nonrelapse deaths in the OHR group were related to GVHD or its treatment compared with 3 of 6 in all others (P value for GVHD related death = .01). Multivariate analysis of OS and DFS correcting for potentially confounding pretransplant factors identified only the OHR patients as having significantly increased risk (relative risk [RR] 3.32, confidence interval [CI] 1.71-6.47, P < .0001, and RR 3.32, CI 1.71-6.43, P < .0001, respectively). The effect of age on NRM is only apparent in HR patients, and is not explained by heterogeneity in diagnoses. Older HR patients experience more GVHD and more GVHD-related death than others, but NRM is no higher than reported with many nonmyeloablative regimens.