Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks.

Authors:
Philippa D Darbre
Philippa D Darbre
School of Biological Sciences
United Kingdom
Philip W Harvey
Philip W Harvey
School of Biological Sciences
United Kingdom

J Appl Toxicol 2008 Jul;28(5):561-78

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK.

This toxicology update reviews research over the past four years since publication in 2004 of the first measurement of intact esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast cancer tissues, and the suggestion that their presence in the human body might originate from topical application of bodycare cosmetics. The presence of intact paraben esters in human body tissues has now been confirmed by independent measurements in human urine, and the ability of parabens to penetrate human skin intact without breakdown by esterases and to be absorbed systemically has been demonstrated through studies not only in vitro but also in vivo using healthy human subjects. Using a wide variety of assay systems in vitro and in vivo, the oestrogen agonist properties of parabens together with their common metabolite (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) have been extensively documented, and, in addition, the parabens have now also been shown to possess androgen antagonist activity, to act as inhibitors of sulfotransferase enzymes and to possess genotoxic activity. With the continued use of parabens in the majority of bodycare cosmetics, there is a need to carry out detailed evaluation of the potential for parabens, together with other oestrogenic and genotoxic co-formulants of bodycare cosmetics, to increase female breast cancer incidence, to interfere with male reproductive functions and to influence development of malignant melanoma which has also recently been shown to be influenced by oestrogenic stimulation.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1358DOI Listing

Still can't find the full text of the article?

We can help you send a request to the authors directly.
July 2008
104 Reads

Article Mentions


Provided by Crossref Event Data
wikipedia
Wikipedia: Parabene
March 27, 2018, 5:31 am EST
wikipedia
Wikipedia: Paraben propylu
December 11, 2017, 4:08 am EST
twitter
Twitter: OptimalHealthA1
July 5, 2017, 9:24 pm EST
wikipedia
Wikipedia: Antiandrogens in the environment
April 14, 2017, 10:38 pm EST

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

bodycare cosmetics
12
human
8
human body
8
breast cancer
8
p-hydroxybenzoic acid
8
vitro vivo
8
paraben esters
8
parabens
6
vivo oestrogen
4
systems vitro
4
independent measurements
4
wide variety
4
variety assay
4
assay systems
4
oestrogen agonist
4
properties parabens
4
acid extensively
4
extensively documented
4
metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic
4
common metabolite
4

References

(Supplied by CrossRef)
Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden
Adolfsson‐Erici et al.
Chemosphere 2002
Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products
Allmyr et al.
Sci. Total Environ 2006
Estrogenicity of butylparaben in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss exposed via food and water
Alslev et al.
Aquat. Toxicol 2005
Effects of skin metabolism on percutaneous penetration of lipophilic drugs
Bando et al.
J. Pharm. Sci 1997
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters
Bay et al.
Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab 2006
Safety of ingredients used in cosmetics
Bergfeld et al.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol 2005
The esters of p‐hydroxy‐benzoate (parabens) inhibit the release of lysosomal enzymes by mitogen‐stimulated peripheral human lymphocytes in culture
Biarati et al.
Clinica Chimica Acta 1994
Estrogenic effect of propylparaben (propylhydroxybenzoate) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after exposure via food and water
Bjerregaard et al.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 2003
The estrogen receptor binding affinities of 188 natural and xenochemicals: structural diversity of ligands
Blair et al.
Toxicological Sciences 2000
Left‐sided excess of invasive cutaneous melanoma in six countries
Brewster et al.
Eur. J. Cancer 2007
Accurate prediction of the response of freshwater fish to a mixture of estrogenic chemicals
Brian et al.
Environ. Health Perspect 2005

Similar Publications