Estimated daily average per capita water ingestion by child and adult age categories based on USDA's 1994-1996 and 1998 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2009 May 14;19(4):396-404. Epub 2008 May 14.

Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, US EPA, Washington, District of Columbia 20640, USA.

Water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for a number of age range groups. The age ranges, based on guidance from the US EPA's Risk Assessment Forum, are narrow for younger ages when development is rapid and wider for older ages when the rate of development decreases. Estimates are based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1994-1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). Water ingestion estimates include water ingested directly as a beverage and water added to foods and beverages during preparation at home or in local establishments. Water occurring naturally in foods or added by manufacturers to commercial products (beverage or food) is not included. Estimates are reported in milliliters (ml/person/day) and milliliters per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/day). As a by-product of constructing estimates in terms of body weight of respondents, distributions of self-reported body weights based on the CSFII were estimated and are also reported here.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2008.29DOI Listing
May 2009
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