Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2008 Jun 4;294(6):L1094-101. Epub 2008 Apr 4.
Pulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132-2406, USA.
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobin superfamily of multiligand receptors. Following ligand binding, mechanisms associated with host defense, tissue remodeling, and inflammation are activated. RAGE is highly expressed in pulmonary epithelium transitioning from alveolar type (AT) II to ATI cells and is upregulated in the presence of ligand; however, the regulation and function of RAGE during development are less clear. Herein, immunohistochemistry demonstrated a temporal-spatial pattern of RAGE expression in pulmonary epithelial cells from embryonic day 17.5 to postnatal day 10. Cotransfection experiments revealed that the mouse RAGE promoter was activated by early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) and inhibited by thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) via interaction with specific regulatory elements. A rat ATI cell line (R3/1) with endogenous RAGE expression also differentially regulated RAGE when transfected with TTF-1 or Egr-1. Because Egr-1 is markedly induced in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; Reynolds PR, Hoidal JR. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 35: 314-319, 2006.), we sought to investigate RAGE induction by CSE. Employing RT-PCR and Western blotting, RAGE and common ligands (amphoterin and S100A12) were upregulated in epithelial (R3/1 and A549) and macrophage (RAW) cell lines following exposure to CSE. Immunostaining for RAGE in cells similarly exposed and in lungs from mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 mo revealed elevated RAGE expression in pulmonary epithelium. After the addition of glyoxylated BSA, an advanced glycation end-product that binds RAGE, real-time RT-PCR detected a 200-fold increase in Egr-1. These results indicate that Egr-1 regulates RAGE expression during development and the likelihood of positive feedback involving Egr-1 and RAGE in cigarette smoke-related disease.