Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2008 Feb;34(1):199-220; ix
Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5200 Eastern Avenue, Mason F. Lord Building, Center Tower, Suite 4100, Room 405, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
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Curr Rheumatol Rep 2012 Feb;14(1):39-46
BIDMC, Division of Rheumatology and Lupus Center, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Scleroderma is a rare systemic autoimmune disease with multiple organ manifestations, including skin fibrosis. The groups of disorders classified as scleroderma mimics share the common thread of skin thickening but are otherwise quite incongruous in terms of underlying disease process and other organ involvement. This article reviews the clinical presentation, etiology, and treatment options available for scleroderma mimics, including morphea, scleredema, diabetic cheiroarthropathy, scleromyxedema, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Read More
Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2013 May 16;39(2):347-64. Epub 2013 Mar 16.
Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
This article acquaints the reader with disorders of the skin that might mimic systemic sclerosis but whose pathology is localized to the skin and/or has extracutaneous manifestations that are different than systemic sclerosis. These disorders include localized scleroderma (morphea), eosinophilic fasciitis, scleredema, scleromyxedema, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Particular emphasis is placed on clinical and histopathologic features that help the clinician differentiate between these disorders. Read More
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2017 Dec;53(3):306-336
Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Scleroderma refers to an autoimmune connective tissue fibrosing disease, including three different subsets: localized scleroderma, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with divergent patterns of organ involvement, autoantibody profiles, management, and prognostic implications. Although systemic sclerosis is considered the disease prototype that causes cutaneous sclerosis, there are many other conditions that can mimic and be confused with SSc. They can be classified into immune-mediated/inflammatory, immune-mediated/inflammatory with abnormal deposit (mucinoses), genetic, drug-induced and toxic, metabolic, panniculitis/vascular, and (para)neoplastic disorders according to clinico-pathological and pathogenetic correlations. Read More
Rheumatol Int 2010 Aug 20;30(10):1389-91. Epub 2009 Aug 20.
Neurology Unit, S. Croce Hospital, Mondovì (CN), Italy.
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrosing disorder, recently described in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, usually after exposure to gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents, characterized by progressive fibrotic involvement mainly of the skin. At clinical examination, the cutaneous findings of NSF may partly resemble those of systemic sclerosis. However, the different topographic distribution of the skin thickening and hardening, usually involving the limbs and trunk, whilst sparing the face, the lack of serologic abnormalities and the distinctive histopathological findings allow this new disease entity to be distinguished from systemic sclerosis and other scleroderma-like fibrosing disorders (scleromyxedema, scleredema, eosinophilic fasciitis, etc. Read More