Biomaterials 2008 May 20;29(14):2237-48. Epub 2008 Feb 20.
Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Université catholique de Louvain, Faculté de Médecine, CHEX 5570, Avenue Hippocrate 55, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.
This work studied the reconstruction of an abdominal wall defect by a human acellular collagen matrix. The abdominal wall defect was cured in 40 rats by implanting (i) polypropylene (Pro), (ii) polyester (Mers) meshes, and (iii) human acellular collagen matrix with two orientations: fibres in parallel (fascia lata longitudinal [FLL]) or perpendicular (fascia lata transversal [FLT]) to native rats' abdominal walls. Hernia recurrence, adhesions, and histology (for inflammation and remodelling) were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Two large abdominal eventrations were cured by a human acellular matrix in human patients. A higher hernia recurrence rate was observed for rats transplanted with FLL than with FLT/Pro/Mers at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. A lower adhesion rate was achieved for FLL/FLT than for Pro/Mers meshes (p<0.05). A decrease in immunologic cell infiltrations in FLL/FLT was observed between day 30 and day 60 (p<0.05). Collagen, elastin, and muscular tissues were found only in FLL/FLT matrix; a weaker muscular cell infiltration for FLL occurred at 8 weeks. Human abdominal eventrations were totally cured by using FLT as confirmed by computed tomography scanning at 12 and 16 months after implantation. In conclusion, human acellular collagen matrix, placed in an FLT position, can induce an abdominal wall reconstitution without adhesions and hernia recurrence.